Note - This article uses a phonetic alphabet, in diagonals, to denote speech sounds unambiguously. It is very like that of the International Phonetic Association but is adapted for the typewriter. In the following table, each symbol represents the sound of the underlined letter in the key word following: "/A/ cat" means /A/ has the sound of A in cat. /A/ cat as generally sounded /I/ Pisa /A/ cat as sounded in Lancs. /IU/ ie /I/ plus /U/ of Welsh iw /Ah/ spa /I/ fit /E/ date as sounded in Scotland /J/ Jugoslavia i.e. as Y French E acute. /EU/ is /E/ plus /U/, much as /U/ as /Uh/ but short in Italian. Not /JUh/ as in /U/ too in Yorkshire. The Southern English /NJUhT3/ neuter. sound is more like /UW/ /U/ book /E/ bed /3/ ago /h/ means that the preceding /'/ goes before the stressed vowel sound is prolonged syllable, as /'JUhST3S/ Eustace (Not an alphabetic letter - but an accent mark) /-/ a syllable (Phonetic spelling of some keywords is sometimes theoretical not factual e.g. neuter is in fact sounded more like /'NJUT3/ than /-Uh-/.) Eustace is from the French, whence it came perhaps in the 11th century in the clerical pronunciation of the day. This was greatly influenced by the contemporary pronunciation of Latin and was /EU'STAS3/ or /EUS-/ as the modern spelling suggests. It was this that was learnt, by ear, by the English from the French. The modern pronunciation is /'JUhST3S/ or less often /-TIS/. I, myself, usually say /-T3S/ but /-TIS/ when thinking about the written word. I associate /-TIS/ in particular with two old men, one b.ca.1870 (He rhymed my name with ...deduced is) The other born 1901. My late mother .b, 1888 said /-T3S/. There seems to have been another form /-TES/ in America and doubtless elsewhere in 1894. The medieval French pronunciation had a stress /-'T-/ and three syllables. Let us consider each of these features. Stress - Evidence for the stressing /-'-/ or / ‘/is provided by the surnames Stace and Stac(e)y, originally pet names. Stace is evidenced in 1147, Staci in 1270. Both of those who bore them may have been baptised Eustace. When the stress changed to /'-/ or /'--/ is harder to say. Chaucer (ca. 1400 -1450) hesitates with French-derived words, stressing e.g. Arcite both /'-/ and /-'/. Honour stressed /-'/ is found in 1462. The form with the modern stressing had perhaps coexisted with it for a century or more. Perhaps the stress history of Eustace is similar. Evidence is scarce. Now we shall jump to the last syllable, spelt -e. When did this cease to be sounded? The spelling Eustas occurs in 1275 but it seems to have been uncommon. Of course the -e was still sounded in the time of Chaucer, and let us say that the disappearance took place in the next century. Such a change takes that long. Eustace Families Post Editors' note - Sinclair Eustace of the Irish Robertstown line disclaims being an expert on phonetics and pronunciation but is certainly a very knowledgable student to whom we are indebted.